What is USDT?
USDT is a cryptocurrency asset issued on the Bitcoin blockchain via the Omni Layer Protocol. Each USDT unit is backed by a U.S Dollar held in the reserves of the Tether Limited and can be redeemed through the Tether Platform. USDT can be transferred, stored, spent, just like bitcoins or any other cryptocurrency, users can transact and store tethers with any Omni Layer enabled wallet like Ambisafe, Holy Transaction or Omni Wallet.
USDT and other Tether currencies were created to facilitate the transfer of national currencies, to provide users with a stable alternative to Bitcoin and to provide an alternative for exchange and wallet audits which are currently unreliable. USDT provides an alternative to Proof of Solvency methods by introducing a Proof of Reserves Process.
In the Tether Proof of Reserves system, the amount of USDT in circulations can be easily checked on the Bitcoin blockchain via the tools provided at Omnichest.info, while the corresponding total amount of USD held in reserves is proved by publishing the bank balance and undergoing periodic audits by professionals.
The amount of USDT in circulation must always correspond to the amount of USD in the bank account used by Tether Limited to receive and send fiat currency to users who purchase/redeem tethers directly on the Tether Platform.
To prove that the amount of USD in the bank account is the same or more than the USDT in circulation, Tether Limited publishes the bank account balance on its website’s Transparency page. Professional auditors will regularly verify, sign, and publish the underlying bank balance and financial transfer statement.
Official Website: https://tether.to/
Block Explorer: https://www.omniexplorer.info/
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital asset and a payment system invented by Satoshi Nakamoto who published a related paper in 2008 and released it as open-source software in 2009. The system featured as peer-to-peer; users can transact directly without an intermediary. Transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain. The ledger uses bitcoin as its unit of account. The system works without a central repository or single administrator, which has led the U.S. Treasury to categorize bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed. Bitcoin is more correctly described as the first decentralized digital currency. It is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value by now.
Bitcoins are created as a reward for payment processing work in which users offer their computing power to verify and record payments into a public ledger. This activity is called mining and miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Users can send and receive bitcoins for an optional transaction fee.
Bitcoin proposes a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they’ll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Official Website: https://bitcoin.org/en/
Bitcoin Wiki: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Main_Page
Bitcoin FAQ: https://bitcoin.org/en/faq
Block Explorer: https://blockchain.info/
Bitcoin Forum: https://bitcointalk.org/
Market Capitalizations: https://coinmarketcap.com/
1. Programme Name
Bitcoin ABC (BCH)
2. Project Introduction
Bitcoin ABC is a full node implementation of the Bitcoin Cash protocol, which aims to provide a solid, stable software and help lead Bitcoin Cash protocol development with an open and collaborative process.
Total Supply: 21,000,000 BCH
4. Useful Links
What is Ethereum?
Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property.
This enables developers to create markets, store registries of debts or promises, move funds in accordance with instructions given long in the past (like a will or a futures contract) and many other things that have not been invented yet, all without a middle man or counterparty risk. The project was bootstrapped via an ether presale in August 2014 by fans all around the world. It is developed by the Ethereum Foundation, a Swiss nonprofit, with contributions from great minds across the globe.
The intent of Ethereum is to create an alternative protocol for building decentralized applications, providing a different set of tradeoffs that we believe will be very useful for a large class of decentralized applications, with particular emphasis on situations where rapid development time, security for small and rarely used applications, and the ability of different applications to very efficiently interact, are important. Ethereum does this by building what is essentially the ultimate abstract foundational layer: a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language, allowing anyone to write smart contracts and decentralized applications where they can create their own arbitrary rules for ownership, transaction formats and state transition functions. A bare-bones version of Namecoin can be written in two lines of code, and other protocols like currencies and reputation systems can be built in under twenty. Smart contracts, cryptographic “boxes” that contain value and only unlock it if certain conditions are met, can also be built on top of the platform, with vastly more power than that offered by Bitcoin scripting because of the added powers of Turing-completeness, value-awareness, blockchain-awareness and state.
Official Website: https://www.ethereum.org/
Block Explorer: https://etherscan.io/
What is Ripple (XRP)?
RippleNet delivers a single, frictionless experience for global payments. Rather than a constellation of disparate technologies, unstandardized communications, and centralized networks, RippleNet is a single, global network of banks that send and receive payments via Ripple’s distributed financial technology — providing real-time messaging, clearing and settlement of transactions.
RippleNet is a decentralized network based on an agreement between Ripple and network participants — all of which utilize the same technology and adhere to a consistent set of payment rules and standards.
RippleNet banks benefit from the robust connectivity, standardized technology, and rich data attachments with each payment. Ripple’s distributed financial technology outperforms today’s infrastructure by driving down costs, increasing processing speeds and delivering end-to-end visibility into payment fees, timing, and delivery.
XRP is the native currency of the Ripple network that only exists within the Ripple system. XRP are currently divisible to 6 decimal places, and the smallest unit is called a drop with 1 million drops equaling 1 XRP. There were 100 billion XRP created at Ripple’s inception, with no more allowed to be created according to the protocol’s rules. As such, the system was designed so XRP is a scarce asset with decreasing available supply. Not dependent on any third party for redemption, XRP is the only currency in the Ripple network that does not entail counterparty risk, and it is the only native digital asset. The other currencies in the Ripple network are debt instruments (i.e. liabilities) and exist in the form of balances. Users of the Ripple network are not required to use XRP as a store of value or a medium of exchange. Each Ripple account is required, however, to have a small reserve of 20 XRP (US$6.58 as of May 16, 2017). The purpose of this requirement is discussed in the anti-spam section.
Official Website: https://ripple.com/
What is Litecoin?
Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own finances. Litecoin features faster transaction confirmation times and improved s torage efficiency than the leading math-based currency. With substantial industry support, trade volume and liquidity, Litecoin is a proven medium of commerce complementary to Bitcoin.
Litecoin was released via an open-source client on GitHub on October 7, 2011 by Charlie Lee, a former Google employee. The Litecoin network went live on October 13, 2011. It was a fork of the Bitcoin Core client, differing primarily by having a decreased block generation time (2.5 minutes), increased maximum number of coins, different hashing algorithm (scrypt, instead of SHA-256), and a slightly modified GUI.
In May 2017, Litecoin became the first of the top-5 (by market cap) cryptocurrencies to adopt Segregated Witness.Later in May of the same year, the first Lightning Network transaction was completed through Litecoin, transferring 0.00000001 LTC from Zürich to San Francisco in under one second. In November 26, 2017, its market capitalization is US$4,600,081,733 at around $85.18 per coin.
Wallet encryption allows you to secure your wallet, so that you can view transactions and your account balance, but are required to enter your password before spending litecoins.
This provides protection from wallet-stealing viruses and trojans as well as a sanity check before sending payments.
Miners are currently awarded with 25 new litecoins per block, an amount which gets halved roughly every 4 years (every 840,000 blocks).
The Litecoin network is therefore scheduled to produce 84 million litecoins, which is 4 times as many currency units as Bitcoin.
Official Website: https://litecoin.org/
Block Explorer: http://explorer.litecoin.net/
What is Dash?
Dash (DASH) is a privacy-centric digital currency with instant transactions. It is based on the Bitcoin software, but it has a two-tier network that improves it. Dash allows you to remain anonymous while you make transactions, similar to cash.
With Bitcoin, transactions are published to the blockchain and you can prove who made them or to whom, but with Dash the anonymization technology makes it impossible to trace them. This is important because the blockchain is accessible to anyone with an internet connection – a significant drawback for those don’t wish their transaction history and balances to be publicly available. Dash does this through a mixing protocol utilizing an innovative decentralized network of servers called Masternodes, avoiding the need for a trusted third party that could compromise the integrity of the system.
Full nodes are servers running on a P2P network that allows peers to use them to receive updates about the events on the network. These nodes require significant amounts of traffic and other resources that carry substantial cost. As a result, on the Bitcoin network, a steady decrease in the amount of these nodes has been observed for some time and as a result block propagation have been upwards of 40 seconds. Many solutions have been proposed such as a new reward scheme by Microsoft Research and the Bitnodes incentive program
Instant Transactions via InstantSend
By utilizing Masternode quorums, users are able to send and receive instant irreversible transactions. Once a quorum has been formed, the inputs of the transaction are locked to only be spendable in a specific transaction, a transaction lock takes about four seconds to be set currently on the network. If consensus is reached on a lock by the Masternode network, all conflicting transactions or conflicting blocks would be rejected thereafter, unless they matched the exact transaction ID of the lock in place.
This will allow vendors to use mobile devices in place of traditional POS systems for real-world commerce and users to quickly settle face-to-face non-ommercial transactions as with traditional cash. This is done without a central authority.
Official Website: https://www.dash.org/
Block Explorer: https://explorer.dash.org/chain/Dash
What is EOS?
EOS tokens are ERC-20 compatible tokens distributed on the Ethereum blockchain pursuant to a related ERC-20 smart contract (the “EOS Tokens”). EOS featured in powerful infrastructure for decentralized application and token distribution takes place over 341 days.
Traditionally, it is the business that pays for office space, computational power, and other costs required to run the business. The customer buys specific products from the business and the revenue from those product sales is used to cover the business costs of operation. Similarly, no website obligates its visitors to make micropayments for visiting its website to cover hosting costs. Therefore, decentralized applications should not force its customers to pay the blockchain directly for the use of the blockchain.
A launched blockchain that uses the EOS.IO software does not require its users to pay the blockchain directly for its use and therefore does not constrain or prevent a business from determining its own monetization strategy for its products.
A holder of tokens on a blockchain launched adopting the EOS.IO software who may not have an immediate need to consume all or part of the available bandwidth, can give or rent such unconsumed bandwidth to others; the block producers running EOS.IO software on such blockchain will recognize this delegation of capacity and allocate bandwidth accordingly.
Separating Transaction costs from Token Value:
One of the major benefits of the EOS.IO software is that the amount of bandwidth available to an application is entirely independent of any token price. If an application owner holds a relevant number of tokens on a blockchain adopting EOS.IO software, then the application can run indefinitely within a fixed state and bandwidth usage. In such case, developers and users are unaffected from any price volatility in the token market and therefore not reliant on a price feed. In other words, a blockchain that adopts the EOS.IO software enables block producers to naturally increase bandwidth, computation, and storage available per token independent of the token’s value.
A blockchain using EOS.IO software also awards block producers tokens every time they produce a block. The value of the tokens will impact the amount of bandwidth, storage, and computation a producer can afford to purchase; this model naturally leverages rising token values to increase network performance.
State Storage Costs:
While bandwidth and computation can be delegated, storage of application state will require an application developer to hold tokens until that state is deleted. If state is never deleted then the tokens are effectively removed from circulation.
Every user account requires a certain amount of storage; therefore, every account must maintain a minimum balance. As storage capacity of the network increases this minimum required balance will fall.
A blockchain that adopts the EOS.IO software will award new tokens to a block producer every time a block is produced. In these circumstances, the number of tokens created is determined by the median of the desired pay published by all block producers. The EOS.IO software may be configured to enforce a cap on producer awards such that the total annual increase in token supply does not exceed 5%.
Community Benefit Applications:
In addition to electing block producers, pursuant to a blockchain based on the EOS.IO software, users can elect 3 community benefit applications also known as smart contracts. These 3 applications will receive tokens of up to a configured percent of the token supply per annum minus the tokens that have been paid to block producers. These smart contracts will receive tokens proportional to the votes each application has received from token holders. The elected applications or smart contracts can be replaced by newly elected applications or smart contracts by token holders.
1. Programme Name
2. Project Introduction
Cardano is a decentralised public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform which seeks to deliver more advanced features than any protocol previously developed. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach. The development team consists of a large global collective of expert engineers and researchers.
Total Supply: ADA is capped at an arbitrary 45,000,000,000, or forty-five billion Ada.
Circulating Supply: 25,927,070,538 ADA
THE LAUNCH OF CARDANO AND AVAILABILITY OF ADA
During the sale that occurred at the launch, 25,927,070,538 ADA were sold. An amount equal to 20% of the total ADA vouchers were sold during the sale period, equating to 5,185,414,108 units. These Ada vouchers were generated and distributed to three entities of the Cardano community, each members of the Technical and Business Development Pool, namely: IOHK, Emurgo and the Cardano Foundation. The total amount of Ada that was made available at the launch is equal to 31,112,484,646 ADA.
ADA TO BE ISSUED DURING THE OPERATION OF THE CARDANO PROTOCOL
The remaining ADA, 13,887,515,354, will be issued after the launch through minting.
Note: There will never be more than 45,000,000,000 ADA in circulation.
4. Useful Links
Website： cardanofoundation.org , iohk.io , emurgo.io
ChainLink is a decentralized oracle network. They describe the on-chain components that ChainLink provides for contracts to gain external connectivity, and the software powering the nodes of the network. They present both a simple on-chain contract data aggregation system, and a more efficient off-chain consensus mechanism. They also describe supporting reputation and security monitoring services for ChainLink that help users make informed provider selections and achieve robust service even under aggressively adversarial conditions. Finally, They characterize the properties of an ideal oracle as guidance for they security strategy, and lay out possible future improvements, including richly featured oracle programming, data-source infrastructure modifications, and confidential smart-contract execution.
Easily connect smart contracts to your web application, any API, and widely accepted USD payments.
1. Connect to Any Existing API: Easily connect smart contracts on various networks to your existing application and critical external data.
2. Send Widely Used Payments: Send Payments from your smart contract to existing bank accounts and over widely used payment networks.
3. Connect With Other Chains: Create secure cross-chain connectivity between your main smart contract and any other public or private chain.
Total supply: 1,000,000,000 tokens
Initial circulation supply: 350,000,000 tokens
Token price：$0.0914 USD
1. Programme Name
2. Project Introduction
TRON: Decentralize the Web
TRON is dedicated to building the infrastructure for a truly decentralized Internet. The TRON Protocol, one of the largest blockchain-based operating systems in the world which offers scalability, high-availability, and high-throughput computing (HTC) support that serves as the foundation for all decentralized applications in the TRON ecosystem. It also provides better compatibility for Ethereum smart contracts through an innovative, pluggable smart contract platform.
Since July 24th, 2018, TRON acquired BitTorrent Inc. which is an Internet technology company based in San Francisco. It designs distributed technologies that scale efficiently, keep intelligence at the edge, and keep creators and consumers in control of their content and data. Every month more than 170 million people use BitTorrent Inc. developed products. Its protocols move as much as 40% of the world’s Internet traffic on a daily basis.
Now TRON is one of the largest blockchain-based operating systems in the world with over 100M users.
3. Token Distribution
Total Supply: 99,000,000,000 TRX
Token in Circulation：66,145,853,783.97308 TRX
4. Useful Links
Block Explorer：https://tronscan.org/#/ https://www.trxplorer.io/
NEO is the use of blockchain technology and digital identity to digitize assets, the use of smart contracts for digital assets to be self-managed, to achieve “smart economy” with a distributed network.
NEO has two forms of digital assets: global assets and contract assets. Global assets can be recorded in the system space and can be identified by all smart contracts and clients. Contract assets are recorded in the private storage area of the smart contract and require a compatible client to recognize them. Contract assets can adhere to certain standards in order to achieve compatibility with most clients.
NEO has an independent smart contract system: NeoContract. The NeoContract smart contract system is the biggest feature of the seamless integration of the existing developer ecosystem. Developers do not need to learn a new programming language but use C#, Java and other mainstream programming languages in their familiar IDE environments (Visual Studio, Eclipse, etc.) for smart contract development, debugging and compilation. NEO’s Universal Lightweight Virtual Machine, NeoVM, has the advantages of high certainty, high concurrency, and high scalability. The NeoContract smart contract system will allow millions of developers around the world to quickly carry out the development of smart contracts. NeoContract will have a separate white paper describing the implementation details.
Official Website: https://neo.org/
White Paper: http://docs.neo.org/en-us/
1. Project Name
2. Project Positioning
A New High-Performance Public Chain Infrastructure & A Distributed Trust Collaboration Platform
Ontology is a new generation public chain infrastructure project.
Ontology provides new high-performance public blockchains that include a series of complete distributed ledgers and smart contract systems.
Ontology blockchain framework supports public blockchain systems and is able to customize different public blockchains for different applications. Ontology supports collaboration amongst chain networks with its various protocol groups.
Ontology will constantly provide common modules on the underlying infrastructure for different kinds of distributed scenarios, such as those for the distributed digital identity framework, distributed data exchange protocol, and so on. Based on specific scenario requirements, Ontology will continue to develop new common modules.
Ontology uses a dual token (ONT and ONG) model. At first, ONT is a NEP-5 token and does not release ONG. After the launch of Ontology’s MainNet, users will be able to exchange NEP-5 ONT for ONT on the Ontology MainNet, which will start to release ONG periodically.
4. Project Progress
To launch TestNet on GitHub in Q1 2018, and to launch MainNet in Q2 2018.
Total Supply: 1,000,000,000
Tokens In Circulation: 53.75%
Token Price: 0.2USD approximately
Ontology Community (including the reward events): 12%
Institutional Partners: 28%
NEO Council: 10%
Ontology Ecosystem Development: 25%
Ontology Core Team: 15%
Ontology Technical Community Reward (including the future bounty program): 10%
6. Token Function
ONT is the governance token of Ontology, and ONG is the utility token of Ontology.
Block Explorer (NEP-5 Stage): https://neotracker.io/
1 Basic information
the total amount of coins issued：9 billion (constant volume)
consensus algorithm: POI (proof of importance)
Mining method: harvest
Project launched: January 19, 2014
main chain online: March 29, 2015
Code base:build from scratch (Java)
TotalMarket Cap Ranking: 7
2 Vision and Mission
Vision: To transform the way the world INTERACT & TRADE in a more equitable & transparent way, for the good of all.
Mission：Sharing our NEM technology freely to EMPOWER societies, economies
and enterprises through education, equipping & enabling engaging
the world on the NEM blockchain platform.
3 NEM’s Features
NEM has a unique namespace/smart asset system, very similar to the structure of the internet domain/page, each user can easily apply for their own namespace, and issue the chain of assets on the public chain. XEM is the chain of assets published in the NEM base namespace. NEM is a set of zero-programmed, java-based blockchain systems, which runs the digital asset XEM with the following basic features:
the perfect collection value-The amout of XEM is constant, no inflation.
Easy to trade: chain transaction carrying capacity, TPS is very efficiency
Harvest system: hold coins for passive income
High efficieny: blockchain operation does not generate significant power demands and energy consumption.
Demand is high: XEM is consumed by billing and publishing smart assets on the public chain
4 NEM protocol
At present, the mainstream blockchain protocols are classified into Pow, PoS and hybrid protocols, the PoI consensus algorithm adopted by NEM belongs to the evolution of PoS. the PoI algorithm has the advantages of low power consumption, high efficiency, etc., and also protects against the 50% of Sybil attack that PoS may cause.
5 Ethereum VS NEM
the current Ethereum blockchain system provides a flexible smart contrac bears, it has a lot of development tools and has well-defined security standards.
However, Ethereum’s smart contracts are like the ancient Greece’s legal texts, once written it can’t not be changed. Although the contract has standardization and security, but it can’t implement many more complex functions, and also not easy to iterate. Once complex functionality is written on Ethereum’s smart contract system, there is a possibility that the backdoor and vulnerabilities will not be blocked.
While evaluating NEM, the way NEM are applied to the blockchain is different, the core is using NEM can write smart contracts below the line of chain to avoid many problems of Ethereum’s smart contract
NEM developed a complete REST API interface, it is easy to use, and supports for all major development language, to pack the core transaction module perfectly to improve the security and transaction atomicity. It uses namespace systems and mosaics to ensure NEM’s perfect financial trading flexibility and is ideal for all types of notarization, traceability, voting, registration, etc.NEM wallets Nanowallet has many versions, like windows, Mac, Linux, IOS and Addroid, which fully demonstrate the applicability of the API.
Reference: Why FamilyPoints chose NEM
6 NEM’s R&D team
The core R&D team of NEM is a group of experienced technical geeks headed by Jaguar. They are distributed in different countries and regions in North America and Europe, they jointly build the NEM’s core engine.
NEM foundation is a non-profit organization with headquarters in Singapore and worldwide network. The foundation is committed to continually evolving the NEM blockchain technology to foster a vibrant ecosystem of NEM users and developers from all walks of life and government agencies.
7 NEM’ private chain Mijin
except for a public chain system, thers is also a complete set of proprietary chain systems, Mijin, which completes the development and promotion of Mijin’s private chain system with a technology team led by Japan’s technology agency
8 NEM Projects
NEM’s public and private chain applications have been around the world, distributed across different countries and industries. Recently, NEM has built a 1000-square-meter blockchain research and application center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
NEM public chain landing project database:
9 What’s Next?
NEM’s next generation core engine, Catapult, went line on the private chain in November and will release to public chain this year. Catapult uses C++ to reshape the core and will increase NEM’s TPS dramaticly.
New feature: Aggregate transaction will allow users not only to initiate payment transactions(push transaction), but also to initiate a receiving transaction(pull transaction).(the current banking and payment system is based on the pull transaction)
Aggregate transaction will also allows multi-asset and multi-account transactions.
Official Website: https://nem.io
1. Programme Name
2. Project Introduction
VeChain aims to connect blockchain technology to the real world by providing a comprehensive governance structure, a robust economic model and advanced IoT integration
Co-founded by Sunny Lu (former CIO of LV China) the current CEO, Vechain currently has use cases and applications in industries such as Fashion and Luxury, Food Safety, Automobiles and Supply Chain. Vechain currently has partnerships with BMW and DNV.GL and Jim Breyer listed on its advisory board.
VeChain uses blockchain technology and their in-house built smart chip to track items throughout their lifecycle. The smart chip can be implemented in different IoT items such as NFC chips, RFID trackers, or QR codes.
VeChain utilizes PoA algorithm and a dual token system consisting of VeChain Token (VET) and VeThor Token (THOR). VET can be used to deploy applications on the platform whereas THOR can be used to pay for applications and other transactions over the network.
Vechain Token Swap Announcement
Total Supply: 86,712,634,466 VET
Token in Circulation: 55,454,734,800 VET
4. Useful Links
Block Explorer: https://insight.vecha.in